Technological Advance Foundation
The main task of the CIAM institution is providing the scientific support for innovative development of the aircraft engine industry.
The Institute's activity is aimed at scientific support provision for the development of future aircraft and helicopters engines, auxiliary power units, and gas turbine engines for the power, shipbuilding, and transport industries.
The theory of air-breathing engines was developed in CIAM with the participation of such great scientists as B. Stechkin, A. Lyulka, V. Uvarov, A. Mikulin, G. Svischev, O. Favorsky, K. Kholschevnikov, S. Shlyakhtenko, V. Sosunov, V. Akimov, and many others.
The theory is presented in many monographs (some of them are university textbooks), collections of articles, and other widely published materials.
The aircraft engine manufacturing is one of the most innovative and science-driven high-technology industry sectors which integrates the results of efforts in various scientific and technical trends and stimulates scientific and technical development of a number of other industry branches. Fewer countries have the entire GTE development and manufacture technology than countries that launch satellites into space. All the Russian aircraft engines were developed with CIAM's assistance. CIAM has unique rigs for full-scale testing of aircraft engines and their components. For Detailed information about CIAM's Research and Test Center capabilities you can read in section "Experimental Infrastructure Facilities".
The Central Institute of Aviation Motors elaborates comprehensive forecasts of engines development for all types of atmospheric vehicles, as well as industrial and transport gas turbine units based on aviation technology.
CIAM researchers develop techniques of evaluating technical, economic, and weight efficiency of aircraft gas turbine and reciprocating aircraft engines with regard to their technological level.
One of CIAM's key competences is the development of mathematical models and predictive analysis of performance and efficiency of future aircraft engines and power units including non-conventional ones, such as ultra-high bypass turbofan engines (TFE), regenerative gas turbine engines, propfan (open rotor) engines, turbo-compound and hybrid power units based on reciprocating aircraft engines, distributed and hybrid power plants based on gas turbine engines, fuel cell power plants.
- Development of aggregated aircraft engine quality performance indicators;
- Preliminary and conceptual design of aircraft gas turbine engines and reciprocating aircraft engines for various applications; formulation of key engine development problems; creation of an advanced research foundation, involving development of the engine components , an experimental gas generator, and an engine demonstration model;
- Development of modernization support projects for serial and experimental aircraft engines in order to improve their performance, increase their service life, meet the strict environmental standards, determine ways of their step by step development to reach enhanced performance in its subsequent modifications and with development of engines that have other designs and other purposes (the family concept);
- Using of the distributed network computing technology for interdisciplinary mathematical modeling of processes in the gas turbine engine inlet guide vanes, turbocharger, combustion chamber, and GTE nozzle;
- Calculation of structural strength and dynamic properties of engine components;
- Design and development of gas turbine engines and reciprocating aircraft engines;
- Development of a 3D data based system that integrates geometric representation of parts (components), mathematical models of gas dynamics, heat exchange, and stress strain behavior.
The Central Institute of Aviation Motor Development performs technical expert analysis of new and renovated aircraft engines design projects, land and marine gas turbine units (GTU), and GTU for the power industry as well.
Mathematical Modeling of Gas Turbine Engine Cycles
The CIAM computer center utilizes multi-level computer modeling systems and can be used to perform unique calculations of cycles in the entire GTE flow path.Such calculations use mathematical models based on the laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy (Euler and Navier-Stokes unsteady state equations), and take into account the actual effects accompanying the GTE cycle, such as viscosity, turbulence, thermal conductivity, combustion, cooling air bleeds and blowing, leaks, etc.
Mathematical modeling and CAD of gas turbine engines
The Institute's efforts in this field are aimed at handling applied problems. CIAM collaborates with leading aerospace companies in the development of methods and calculations of the thermal stress behavior and optimization of turbomachine components, the issues of modeling stress strain behavior and service life of structures under cyclic and complex non-isothermal loading conditions, modeling thin-wall part manufacture processes, the development of dynamic gas bearings and future floating seals, and GTE rotor dynamics.
CIAM experts successfully handle interdisciplinary problems and establish conditions for the transition to multi-disciplinary models in future engine design. Special attention is paid to development of our own mathematical models and specialized software packages, as well as numerical methods of structure calculation and optimization.
Small gas turbine engines
Reciprocating aircraft engines
CIAM's competences in the reciprocating aircraft engine design are:
- Calculations and multi-objective optimization of reciprocating and rotary aircraft engine cycle parameters;
- Development of design/process and calculation methods used in the design of experimental and mass-produced reciprocating aircraft engines;
- Experimental refinement of reciprocating aircraft engine units and components at bench-scale rigs;
- Integrated experimental studies of reciprocating aircraft engines as part of power plants, including studies with in expected operating conditions;
- Development of experimental test rig systems for future reciprocating aircraft engine cycles refinement.
Combined Engines and Power Plants for High-speed Aircraft
CIAM carries out calculations and experimental efforts for studying models of parts and components of various combined power unit types to ensure efficient cycle performance at supersonic and hypersonic flight speeds.
Power plant and aircraft integration
The most important area of CIAM engineers' work is the multi-objective optimization of parameters of power units for various aircraft flying at various speeds, using optimality criteria, i.e., performance, fuel efficiency, transportation cost, life cycle cost, environmental performance, etc.
CIAM efforts in this area include:
- Design parameter selection and evaluation of engine efficiency for engines installed on aircraft;
- Optimal integration of the power unit and the airframe;
- Calculation of altitude, speed, and throttle performance of various engine types as part of procedure of aircraft and power unit design parameters adjustment;
- Aircraft environmental noise calculations and minimization;
- Emission performance evaluation by the aircraft flight profile.
Software packages enable studies of coordinating the power unit and the airframe and of calculating technical and economic performance of various aircraft and helicopters. This software can be used for the following:
- Conceptual design of future aircraft power plants, including justified choice of engine cycle parameters rational scheme; determining the required engine dimensions and their operating regimes at various flight phases;
- Selecting optimal engine control law programs with regard to the specifics of their operation in the respective aircraft;
- Determining the power plant potential for use with different engine types and limits of feasible utilization of engines with various design configurations;
- Evaluating the efficiency of alternative options and choosing new engines for aircraft in operation;
- Reviewing potential for engine installation at several aircraft types, selecting a unified engine for the future fleet of aircraft and helicopters;
- Optimizing flight conditions at individual flight path sections;
- Determining the effect of atmospheric conditions and various losses during engine operation on the aircraft technical and economic performance.
The module for engine altitude, speed, and throttle performance calculations was developed specifically for large-scale parametric and optimization studies. The module allows taking into consideration various types of losses from installation of an engine on the aircraft.
CIAM also develops and conducts testing of unmanned flying laboratories for the refinement of technologies of small hybrid and electric power plants, including those using various types of fuel cells.
The Central Institute of Aviation Motors conducts conceptual pilot studies of different types of combined power plants for aerospace systems.
The main areas of research and technical activities of CIAM's Industrial and Transport Gas
Turbine Units department are:
• Calculations and experimental studies of the properties of low-emission combustion of fuel gases and liquid fuels to support the development of a technology for low-emission combustion in dual-fuel low-emission combustion chambers of aircraft gas turbine engines and industrial gas turbine units;
• Development of dual-fuel low-emission combustion chambers for gas turbine engines;
• Refinement of dual-fuel low-emission combustion chambers at CIAM rigs under simulated operating conditions (pressure and temperature);
• Calculations and design for the development of highly efficient environmentally safe gas turbine units; marine and railroad gas turbine units; and gas turbine units for mechanical drives.